This means that because audiences already know what to expect within a genre, it is not necessary to explain all of the details to them, narratives can therefore be condensed. Under this theory, the issues that receive the most attention from media become the issues that the public discusses, debates, and demands action on. I will highlight the most important maxims here and cover other communication theories as well. THE SIGNIFIER – The sign: a word, colour or image (i.e. Superiority, Domination & Body Language: Men are shown in dominant positions; appear to be reflective of thought and intelligence. His bold statements about media gained McLuhan a great deal of attention as both his supporters and critics responded to his utopian views about the ways media could transform 20th-century life. Theories are constructed within media technology eras. Genres are trans-historical. The relative salience of an issue determines its place within the public agenda, which in turn influences public policy creation. Many of the theories discussed in this section were developed decades ago. structuralism, including Lévi-Strauss This model assumed that audiences passively accepted media messages and would exhibit predictable reactions in response to those messages. Why? unravelled in a lot of different ways) or 'closed' (there is only one obvious thread to pull on). e.g. And rather than being created completely by a human author, these versions are often in part automatically assembled by a computer” You enter information about yourself and then the automated software creates a personalized interface to the database just for you. Technol… Genres have clear, stable identities and borders. With this foundation of psychology in place, let’s move on to some applications of these theories in your social media marketing, website planning, and … Rick Altman was critical of genre theory. The Road Back – vengeful forces controlled by the villain are unleashed. In contrast to the extreme views of the direct effects model, the agenda-setting theory of media stated that mass media determine the issues that concern the public rather than the public’s views. Siebert 2. The limited application of the four established theories of the press to Third World countries has led to the birth of a new media theory whose main task is that communication be used to carry out the development functions in a society. The term 'Folk Devil' is the name given to the object of the moral panic. The results of the People’s Choice Study challenged this model. THEORY LIST COVERAGE GUIDE FULL A chapter in the 10th edition is dedicated to this theory. In this new age, humankind will move from individualism and fragmentation to a collective identity, with a "tribal base." Sometimes media practitioners, social critics and academics also involved to develop these normative theories. In both these examples, the ‘male’ is active (the one doing the looking) and the ‘female’ is passive (the one being looked at). Early media studies focused on the use of mass media in propaganda and persuasion. Gerbner - Studied the effects of television on people’s perception of crime - linked to ‘cultivation theory’ and 'mean world syndrome'. Judith Butler: theorist of power, gender, sexuality and identity. Gauntlett - He challenged the effects model on audiences and has investigated the impact of web 2.0 on identity and audiences. He tried to explain how pictures that arise spontaneously in people’s minds come to be—a simplification of his theory is that we live in second-hand worlds. Often action codes allow characters the chance to resolve a problem through action, often violent action (gun fights/ car chases). Click on the guide to referencing here if you want to get it right. David Altheide and Robert Snow, Media Worlds in the Postjournalism Era (New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1991), 9–11. He also developed models of society out of Marxist theory. Papacharissi, Zizi. Peterson 3. Viewers are encouraged to identify with the protagonist of the film who, more often than not, is a man. In her 1973 essay Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema she argued that classic Hollywood cinema puts the spectator in a masculine position, with the figure of the woman on screen as the object of desire. Fiske et al (1983) - "Story is the irreducible substance of a story (A meets B, something happens, order returns), while narrative is the way the story is related (Once upon a time there was a princess...)", Syd Field – American Screenwriter came up with a formulaic approach to film structure in three acts. Eras of Media Theory. New Equilibrium/ Re-Equilibrium/ Second Equilibrium: (satisfactory end) Back to normal, peace restored (but never the same)- a new normality! Andrew Goodwin - conventions that exist within music videos are according to musical genre (performances in rock videos; choreography in pop). According to the spiral of silence theory, if the media propagates a particular opinion, then that opinion will effectively silence opposing opinions through an illusion of consensus. Hall, Stuart – Reception theory and Mediation is the process by which all media products are read by audiences. There are frequent references to the notion of looking and the voyeuristic treatment of the female body. One of the ways the media creates and uses cultural symbols to affect an individual’s sense of self is advertising. Indiana Jones, James Bond, Rocky etc. Alvarado et al. comic relief (C3P0+), False hero villain that pretends to be good in order to trick the hero. Do you think these theories are still relevant for modern mass media? The now largely discredited direct effects model of media studies assumes that media audiences passively accept media messages and exhibit predictable reactions in response to those messages. He sees these worlds as Utopian that offer an abundance of energy, excitement and spontaneity. The purpose of the author in this is typically to keep the audience guessing, arresting the enigma, until the final scenes when all is revealed and all loose ends are tied off and closure is achieved. Because the viewer is gendered as male (even if she’s a woman!) These theories came about due … Each of these uses gratifies a particular need, and the needs determine the way in which media is used. Contested in some modern films/adverts of today. Taken from (Gaventa 2003: 2). Michael Foucault – power and classes - He is one of the few writers on power who recognise that power is not just a negative, coercive or repressive thing that forces us to do things against our wishes, but can also be a necessary, productive and positive force in society. The modern televangelist has evolved from the adoption of television-style promotion by religious figures, while the utilization of television in political campaigns has led candidates to consider their physical image as an important part of a campaign (Altheide & Snow, 1991). Titanic. Media texts offer a way of telling stories about ourselves – not usually our own personal stories, but the story of us as a culture or set of cultures. Identify the basic theories of media effects. This theory breaks down every aspect of conversation and states that if you want to create a successful conversation, than maxims, or rules must be followed. Fiske – defines genres as ‘attempts to structure some order into the wide range of texts and meanings that circulate in our culture for the convenience of both producers and audiences.’ He adds, ‘the assignment of a text to a genre influences how the text is read’. I will highlight the most important maxims here and cover other communication theories as well. Young people need constant surveillance and monitoring. Published in 1962 and 1964, respectively, the Gutenberg Galaxy and Understanding Media both traced the history of media technology and illustrated the ways these innovations had changed both individual behavior and the wider culture. McLuhan’s other great achievement is the popularization of the concept of media studies. E.g. Many people use the Internet to seek out entertainment, to find information, to communicate with like-minded individuals, or to pursue self-expression. Widespread fear that mass-media messages could outweigh other stabilizing cultural influences, such as family and community, led to what is known as the direct effects model of media studies. Approach To The Innermost Cave – the most dangerous confrontation yet, perhaps the location of the treasure, or the object of the quest. Conventional definitions of genres tend to be based on the notion that they constitute particular conventions of content (such as themes or settings - iconography) and/or form (including structure and style) which are shared by the texts which are regarded as belonging to them. Jansson-Boyd, Catherine. The Theory: Social Exchange Theory (Thibaut & Kelley, 1952) Social Exchange Theory, … The third wave of modernization theory rising in the 1990s is the theory of late-, high- or post modernity. Figure 2.7 Through a variety of antismoking campaigns, the health risks of smoking became a public agenda. The audience takes a negotiated position, meaning that they only agree with some-not all of the preferred meaning. According to Andrew Sarris in his ‘Notes on the Auteur Theory’, a director must accomplish technical competence in their technique, personal style in terms of how the movie looks and feels, and interior meaning. To effectively communicate, people use symbols with shared cultural meanings. the colour BLUE), THE SIGNIFIED – The concept/ meaning/associations that the sign refers to (i.e. Barbara Fredrickson – objectification; she explored the consequences of being female in a culture that sexually objectifies the female body. male and female behavior and roles are not the result of biology but are constructed and reinforced by society through media and culture. Media Theory Books Showing 1-50 of 588 Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business (Paperback) by. Return With The Elixir – return to the ordinary world with some wisdom, knowledge or something else gained from the adventure. Vance Packard, author of the 50s shock exposé of advertising and social control, identified eight hidden needs that we all have. We wait to see if he kills his opponent or is wounded himself. Some critics say that this diminished audiences’ interest in the film’s end. The list contains theories that are or have been covered in A First Look at Communication Theory. The Sixth Sense, Born On the Fourth Of July. Professors at Fordham University have formed an association of McLuhan-influenced scholars. Cohen, S - Coined the term moral panic in 1972 - Media was often seen as the trigger for a decline in moral standards in society. She believes that the female gaze is negated, or ‘drowned out’ by the dominant male gaze. Media scholars are much more numerous now than they were during the 1960s, and many of these scholars criticize McLuhan’s lack of methodology and theoretical framework. © 2017 Burton Mayers Books. E.g.
  • Uses and Gratifications – what audiences do with the media
. Another commonly used media theory, symbolic interactionism, states that the self is derived from and develops through human interaction. This explains somewhat genres repetitive nature. Indeed, his work has received a great deal of attention in recent years. theories around ethnicity and postcolonial theory including Gilroy. By convincing users to give away valuable information about themselves in exchange for free services, firms can accrue large amounts of data at virtually no cost. Key Media Studies Theorists Quick revise This A-Level Media studies section of Revision World highlights some of the main Audience Theorists, Genre Theorists, Narrative Theorists and Representation Theorists. This is when someone puts their intent out onto the internet and then gets free support/information/ideas/labour from other people on the internet. Televised violent acts, whether those reported on news programs or portrayed on television dramas, for example, greatly outnumber violent acts that most people encounter in their daily lives. Cyber dystopias centre around the principles of the individual losing control, becoming dependent and being unable to stop change. Section 2 introduces the framework, and Section 3 discusses the application of these four theories to social media and compares them with empirical findings in the IS literature. Lanier argues that Web 2.0 developments have retarded progress and innovation and glorified the collective at the expense of the individual. ', Axel Bruns – Bruns defines the gatewatching practice as ‘observing the many gates through which a steady stream of information passes from these sources, and of highlighting from this stream that information which is of most relevance to one’s own personal interests or to the interests of one’s wider community.’, Nicholas Carr states in The Glass Cage, “The prevailing methods of computerized communication and coordination pretty much ensure that the role of people will go on shrinking. Andre Bazin and Roger Leenhardt also expressed that the director brings the film to life and uses it to express their feelings on the subject matter. For example, a gunslinger draws his gun and we wonder what the resolution will be. If old consumers were isolated individuals, then new consumers are more socially connected. All new items of information are based on preceding ones, and they are "new" ... Jonathan Schroeder - Viewing such recorded images gives the viewer's gaze a voyeuristic dimension., 'to gaze implies more than to look at - it signifies a psychological relationship of power, in which the gazer is superior to the object of the gaze' (Schroeder 1998, 208). You may assume the person is successful or powerful because of the car he or she is driving. The theory suggests that social and daily experiences can affect the way an audience reads a media text and reacts to it. The list should really be seen as a starting point for your own research and is not a ‘be all and end all’ approach, but hopefully you will discover new ideas and arguments that you can bring into your exam writing. Ideals and cultures can be enforced upon the masses. The spiral of silence theory, which states that those who hold a minority opinion silence themselves to prevent social isolation, explains the role of mass media in the formation and maintenance of dominant opinions. Sociologists Gerbner & Gross were concerned about long term exposure to media texts, especially violent TV in US (circa 1976). McLuhan spoke of a media-inspired “global village” at a time when Cold War paranoia was at its peak and the Vietnam War was a hotly debated subject. Turow - His basic premise is that audience segmentation, and especially the pinpoint targeting that is theoretically possible with new media technology, reinforces suspicion, alienation, and lack of empathy among people of different groups because they have lost the shared consumer experience that the old mass media audience system provided. This is to accentuate the parts of their body which will attract a male audience. Films are inherently assigned to a corpus and we tend to be able to identify which ones fit that corpus easier than others. Communication Theories Social Media Professionals Should Know. Identify how each of these theories can be used today? As minority opinions are silenced, the illusion of consensus grows, and so does social pressure to adopt the dominant position. If we want to see a more "democratic" culture, we need to explore what mechanisms might have encouraged greater diversity in who participates, whose work gets seen, and what gets valued within the new participatory culture. People doing things because they want to is always better than people watching things because they are there. Gramsci – Suggested that dominant ideologies can change over time, moving away from heritage and tradition if enough audiences/groups enforce their own discourse (We media). Chris Allen – studied the representation Muslims in the media. Media effects include theories that explain how the mass media influence the attitudes and perceptions of audience members. 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