Grooves not straight and parallel to the centerline are unacceptable. Before texturing, check that the contractor rounds the pavement edges to specified radii. To maintain the concrete pavement at the thickness specified, the contractor may adjust the planned finished grade provided two conditions are met: All lower layers have been constructed to at least the minimum required elevations. Make sure that JIT training is conducted in conformance with contract provisions. Perform measurements and calculations for the curing seal’s application rate. Obtain calibration documentation and operational guidelines for frequency measuring devices for concrete consolidation vibrators. Bank the sides and ends of the specimens with earth or sand that must be kept damp, leaving the top surfaces exposed to the specified curing treatment. All values in the table are to be used successively for each primary unit throughout the project after the value for the first core in the unit is selected at random. For concrete pavement widenings placed adjacent to existing pavements, make sure the existing pavement lane or shoulder is ground before new concrete is placed. Also, the use of additional tie bars makes the consolidation of concrete at TCJs difficult due to the reduced spacing between longitudinal reinforcing steel. Transportation time must not exceed 4 hours. Make the deficiency adjustment on the average thickness deficiency in the same manner as for areas that have been cored. This mixture may result from “bleed” water that had not evaporated, water that was added to the surface to make finishing easier, or water that was added to prevent hairline cracking and checking. After measuring and recording pavement thickness, retain the cores until final agreement is reached on payment for the concrete pavement, usually after the contractor returns the proposed final estimate. General practice is to limit any such adjustment so that the planned finished grade does not change more than 0.04 foot in 60 feet longitudinally. Check that any specified bond breaker material, curing seal, or other required treatment has been applied and maintained on the underlying material in conformance with contract requirements. Obtain the contractor's quality control plan that details the methods the contractor will use to ensure the quality of the work. Make sure the contractor sprays the concrete with a mist of water until the concrete has set before placing the membrane. Like dowel bars, tie bars should be protected from corrosion. 1. The resulting value was used in the calculation instead of the thickness variation for Core 7 to determine the average thickness deficiency of the primary unit area. For instance, tie bars are used in longitudinal joints in concrete pavement. Tie bars are deformed rebars or connectors used for holding faces of rigid slabs in contact to maintain aggregate interlock. Continue taking a secondary core in adjacent panels, expanding as necessary, until the deficient area is bounded by panels with deficient thickness of 0.05 foot or less. On slipform pavers, tie bars are inserted on slab edges that will become longitudinal joints (see Figure 2 and 3) and, if two lanes at once are being paved, pushed into a mid-slab area (similar to dowel bar insertion) that will later be cut as a longitudinal joint (see Figure 4 and 5). Whenever early tests are performed, advise the contractor that such areas are subject to retesting. A longitudinal joint consists of a tie bar placed at the mid-depth of a concrete pavement and it is not intended for joint lateral movement. When you have specific knowledge of areas deficient in thickness and you have records of the extent of such deficiency, exclude these areas from the random coring. The procedures and the dollar figures used for deductions from payments to the contractor used in the example are based on Section 40-1.01D(8)(c)(iv), “Thickness,” of the Standard Specifications. Personnel from the district materials laboratory will keep one copy; another copy goes to METS in Sacramento. The bounded area is referred to as a secondary unit. Decide if crossings will be necessary for the convenience of public traffic and whether rapid strength concrete should be used for such crossings. When these tie bars are used to connect two lanes, or a lane and shoulder, the tie bar may be mechanically inserted by the paving machine into the fresh concrete ahead of the float, or it may be held in position by support devices. Inconsistent delivery and nonuniformity of concrete can affect paver performance and have negative effects on the paved surface. In general, any area excluded from final coring should be small, and you must have other measurements to confirm that the thickness of the pavement is not deficient. For jointed plain concrete pavements, monitor the contractor’s timelines from concrete placement to curing application and contraction joint sawing in comparison to their planned schedule from their early age crack mitigation system. Other suitable methods may be used if the temperature requirements are met. However, deformed tie bars, 16 mm in diameter and 0.75 m long are spaced at 0.75 m along all longitudinal joints. Tie bars are not load transferring device. Inspect the paving equipment for specification compliance. Verify that control charts for required quality control tests are being updated on each day of paving and adhere to the quality control plan, including action and suspension limits. Epoxy coated tie bar at 3’-0" c/c 1’-6" 1’-6" TIE-BAR SIZES FOR LONGITUDINAL JOINT Pavement Thickness, D D Single pass saw cut (Depth = D/3) TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH PCCP Less than or equal to 9" Greater than 9" #5 #6 Tie-Bar Size INDIANA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STANDARD DRAWING NO. Also, be sure the contractor does the vibrating at the locations and in the frequencies and amplitudes specified. Before coring begins in primary units, designate areas where coring is excluded. Then one may doubt the reasons of placing longitudinal joints in concrete pavements. Discuss any adjustment in their construction operations as a result of predicted weather. Field Curing for Traffic Opening: As nearly as practicable, cure beams in the same manner as the concrete in the pavement. While the required width applies to both upper and lower surfaces, the bottom width can be greater than specified to reduce edge slump. Tie bars in cement concrete pavements are at a) expansion joints b) contraction joints c) warping joints d) longitudinal joints greater than 6” in thickness (then use dowels) • Commercial Aviation runways - Last 3 transverse contraction joints are doweled - All longitudinal construction joints are doweled - Longitudinal contraction joints o > 9” thick Store specimens representing pavement by placing them on the ground as molded, with their top surfaces up. They are placed across transverse joints of concrete pavement to allow movement to take place. Observe texturing for compliance with requirements. If any of the concrete visible during finishing is more dilute than the mortar of the freshly placed concrete, too much water is being mixed into the surface. A deduction was then taken on the remedied secondary unit as follows: 72 square yards x $0.90/square yard = $64.80. Why? Suggested levels of field inspection for typical concrete pavement activities are: Guidance for quality control activities included in this section is summarized as follows: Using the dimensions shown on the plans, calculate the quantity of concrete pavement to be paid for. The core thickness variations for the respective numbered cores were determined as follows: Core 3 is more than 0.02 foot greater than the specified thickness, so + 0.02 foot was used in the calculation to determine thickness deficiency in the primary unit in accordance with Section 40-1.01D(8)(c)(iv), “Thickness,” of the Standard Specifications. Longitudinal Joints Longitudinal joints are required when pavement width is more than 4.5m. Check that the quality control plan has met or exceeded the quality control testing requirements specified in the contract. To calculate the deficiency adjustment, do not separately consider additional cores that are deficient in thickness by no more than 0.05 foot. Continuous acceptance sampling and testing of fresh concrete. Note that tests performed before the concrete is 7 days old are not valid for acceptance. The total area paved on this date was 8,400 square yards. For California Test 523, “Method of Test for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Modulus of Rupture),” select a location to store concrete beams. For instance, tie bars are used in longitudinal joints in concrete pavement. Verify that the contractor uses either the waterproof membrane method or curing compound method specified in Section 90-1.03B, “Curing Concrete,” of the. Check that end anchors are constructed at all required locations and to the dimensions shown on the plans. Testimonials. Skips, (such as gaps left for traffic or equipment crossing, short distances between adjacent bridges, and secondary areas to be removed and replaced), are ultimately poured at a later date. Notify the contractor promptly of any deviations and record this information in the daily report along with the location of the work. For jointed plain concrete pavements, examine concrete pavement surfaces once the cure period is complete. Curing of beams: Initial curing, final curing for acceptance, and field curing for traffic opening are described in the following paragraphs. If requested by the contractor or desired by the resident engineer, hold a separate meeting to discuss the quality control plan that addresses each element affecting pavement quality, including those specified in Section 40-1.01D(3), “Quality Control Plan,” of the. Make sure that the contractor adheres to the specified curing period. An adequate longitudinal joint tie bar system is essential in the overall performance of concrete pavement. The secondary unit area was later removed, reworked, and replaced. Note these areas in daily reports with stationing and offset information. This average was rounded to -0.02 foot and used for the thickness deficiency for the primary unit. Chapter 1 - Caltrans Construction Organization, 4-4002D Concrete Field Qualification and Pavement Test Strip, 4-4003E Measurement of Pavement Thickness, Table 4-40.1. - Last longitudinal joint receives tiebars o Except. Benchmark inspection of forms and paving equipment. However, if the contractor requests additional thickness measurements before the performance of any of the primary coring, you may shorten the length of the coring interval for the primary unit accordingly. Differences between Dowel bars and Tie bars. Drying of the surfaces of the beam shall be prevented between removal from water storage and completion of testing. Media | Remove all beam specimens from field storage and store in water saturated with calcium hydroxide at 70-77 degrees Fahrenheit for 20-28 hours immediately before time of testing to assure uniform moisture condition. Check that the contractor is properly identifying and constructing contraction joints relative to pavement references and bar centroids in conformance with the contract requirements and the contractor’s quality control plan. Check that burlap drags are used as specified and kept sufficiently clean to avoid irregularities in the texture. Use judgment regarding which of these areas warrant thickness coring. For each pavement thickness on each day's paving, determine the net area, in square yards, of pavement placed, excluding the area of structures and other areas on which pavement is not placed during that day. Your inspection should verify the following attributes for the compound: It is not contaminated, diluted, or altered before application. 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